Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The guarantee of freedom of (and from) religion in America - Assignment Example For example, the government is prohibited from enacting laws that aid any religion or establish an official state religion. All this is in a bid to achieve the separation of the state and church at both the state and national levels of government. In the Everson v. Board Education, the court provided a list of activities that violate the establishment and are prohibited by the First Amendment (National Paralegal College 1. They include: the setting up of a state church; the passing of laws which particularly aid one religion or aid religions generally; the forcing of or influencing of persons to attend or not attend church; the punishing of individuals for ascribing to particular beliefs or disbeliefs or for not attending or attending church; the levying of taxes to support religious activities or institutions and; the participation of government in religious organizations or participation in government by religious organizations. The Free Exercise clause is a provision that guarantees an individual the right to propagate or practice a religion without interference by government. Several activities violate the free exercise clause. First, if the purpose of any government action or state law is singling out religion for adverse treatment or hindering or discriminating against a particular religion, then it amounts to a violation of the free exercise clause. ... In Engel v. Vitale in 1962, the Supreme Court termed as unconstitutional a prayer recommended to be part of the public school curriculum in New York State. The Supreme Court struck the prayer down as unconstitutional. In Lemon v. Kurtzman in 1971, a three-pronged test known as the Lemon test was established to determine if a statute is in violation of the establishment clause. Students in public schools are not allowed to recite prayers. However, the practice of a legislature by the state to open its sessions with a nondenominational prayer that is recited by a chaplain has managed to withstand constitutional challenges. In Marsh v. Chambers in 1983, the Supreme Court made a ruling that such a practice was not in violation of the establishment clause (LII 3). In Edwards v. Aguillard in 1987, the Supreme Court struck down a Creationism Act in Louisiana that prevented the teaching of evolution in public schools. This issue still creates debate even today regarding creationism and evolu tion. Other key rulings include Lynch v. Donnelly, West Virginia State Board of Educatio v. Barnette, Wisconsin v. Yoder, and United States v. Lee. 3. What does Tocqueville observe with relevance to these matters? Tocqueville approaches the issue of religion in a pragmatic manner. Tocqueville observes that the American society has a scarce history of state-church alliance. Also, it has a constitutional guarantee against this alliance. Despite this, the American society is extremely open to religious practiceÃ¢â¬â¢s favorable influences. In his observations, Tocqueville (1) notes that all Christian groups propound a similar morality which is based on loving God and loving their neighbors. This means that they all agree that man has duty to other men.
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Competitive Advantage Of Airline Industry In Singapore Tourism Essay Singapore economy is one of most prosperous in the world. Singapore airline industry accounted for 5% of GDP and the industry value-added rate is 15%. As an important role in Singapore economy, Singapore airline industry has growing fast. In this paper will use the Porters Diamond Model (Factor endowments; Demand conditions; Related and supporting industries; Firm strategy, structure and rivalry; Chance Government) to analysis the competitive advantage of Singapore airline industry and explain how the Singapore airline industry developed its competitive advantages. Introduction Singapore economy environment Singapore economy is one of most prosperous in the world. Singapore economy is a capitalist mixed economy, with minimal government intervention in the market. It has an open business environment, relatively corruption-free and transparent, stable prices and one of the highest per capita gross domestic products (GDP) in the world. Airlines industry in Singapore Air travel is a large and growing industry. It facilitates economic growth, world trade, international investment and tourism and is therefore central to the globalization taking place in many other industries. In Singapore economic environment, the Singapore airlines industry had total revenue of $5.8 billion in 2009, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.7% for the period spanning 2005-2009. Industry volumes increased with a CAGR of 4.1% between 2005 and 2009, to reach a total of 18.1 million passengers in 2009. The performance of the industry is forecast to accelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 11% for the five year period 2009-2014, which is expected to drive the industry to a value of $9.8 billion by the end of 2014 (Airlines Industry Profile: Singapore, 2010). Porters Diamond Model of Competitive Advantage The diamond model is an economical model developed by Michael Porter in his book The Competitive Advantage of Nations (Porter, 1990), where he published his theory of why particular industries become competitive in particular locations. Porters diamond model suggests that there are inherent reasons why some nations, and industries within nations, are more competitive than others on a global scale. The argument is that the national home base of an organization provides organizations with specific factors, which will potentially create competitive advantages on a global scale. The analysis is classified into six broad factors incorporated into the Porter diamond, which has become a key tool for the analysis of competitiveness: Factor endowments a nations position in factors of production such as skilled labor or the infrastructure necessary to compete in given industry. Demand conditions the nature of home demand for the industrys product or service. Related and supporting industries the presence or absence of supplier industries and related industries that are internationally competitive. Firm strategy, structure and rivalry the conditions governing how companies are created, organized, and managed and the nature of domestic rivalry. Chance events are occurrences that are outside of control of a firm. They are important because they create discontinuities in which some gain competitive positions and some lose. Government can influence each of the above four determinants of competitiveness. Clearly government can influence the supply conditions of key production factors, demand conditions in the home market, and competition between firms. Government interventions can occur at local, regional, national or supranational level. Figure 1: Porters Diamond Model www.google.com_000.jpg Source: The Competitive Advantage of Nations By using Porters diamond, business leaders may analyze the competitive factors which may reside in their home country company, and what factors may be used to achieve global competitive advantage. Business leaders can also use the Porters diamond model during a phase of internationalization, the leaders can use the model to analyze whether the factors in the domestic market to support the internationalization process, and whether in the country eligible to create a global scale competitive advantage. Analysis of Airline Industry in Singapore Factor endowments The factor endowments of airlines industry include human resources, capital, equipment and facilities, air space resources, etc. In human resources, due to the characteristics of technology-intensive in airlines industry, the organization requires a lot of professional and technical personnel. Meanwhile, the aviation industry also needs administrative, financial investment and sales staffs. The multi-cultural Singaporean workforce is highly educated, highly motivated and highly productive. It is also proficient in English the language of international business. Singapore has a large base of engineering talent, with the number of engineers in universities and polytechnics expanding steadily each year, in addition to the sizeable pool of skilled technicians. In addition, Singapore government through the open immigration policy enhances Singapores talent pool. This gives companies the opportunity to source for the best personnel from anywhere in the world (http://www.edb.gov.sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/why_singapore/knowledge.html). For these reasons, the Singapore airlines industries have good manpower. In capital, airlines industry needs a large finance support, the aircrafts and airport cost millions of money. In Singapore, the worlds major banks have opened branches or offices. Therefore, the Singapore airline industries do not have problem in capital. For example, Commerzbank Singapore branch has 30 years experience in financing aircraft to arrange and manage the entire deal, and a complete suite of financing products (https://www.commerzbank.com.sg/en/financing/aircraft/aircraft_financing.htm). Although the Singapores skies are limited, however the airline industry not far from reaching saturation point. According to Lee Kuan Yew (former Prime Minister of Singapore), due to the aid of advanced navigation technology, Singapore can shorten the distance of the aircraft flight and to increase flights density, therefore Singapore in terms of the open skies, still have a lot of space. Demand conditions Airlines generally have a large number of buyers. Many of these are individual consumers purchasing flights directly from the airline, although there are business to business sales to charter companies, discounters, and similar buyers. With the increasing living standard, the customers are demand on convenient, comfortable and fast transportation. Travel by air is one of the best choices for Singapore customers. Firstly, Singapore has a strong international trade link, there are thousands of businessmen which from different countries doing business in Singapore. The businessmen through the air travel to make sure they can reach the right place on time. Secondly, Singapore is one of the most popular tourist cities in Asia. There are 10.8 million tourists visit Singapore in 2008. Furthermore, due to the population growth, Singapore has a great potential demand for air travel. Table 1: Singapore Population Statistics Year 2007 Total Population (000) 4588.6 Singapore Residents (000) 3583.1 Birth Rate (Per 1000 Population) 10.3 Death Rate (Per 1000 Population) 4.5 Infant Mortality Rate (Per 1000 Live Births) 2.1 (Source : www.singstat.gov.sg) (Source: Airlines Industry Profile: Singapore, 2010) According to the tables, it obviously shows that the passengers of Singapore airlines industry have increasing by year. Related and supporting industries The related and supporting industries including airports, air traffic control, navigation information, aviation fuel, air material and other support services, and aircraft manufacturing and maintenance of related industries. From the supply-side perspective, the airport provide the basic conditions for airlines industry, it contains safety and quality service. Changi Airport is the main airport in Singapore which humble beginnings in 1981. Changi Airport also is a major aviation hub in Southeast Asia. Currently managed by Changi Airport Group, Changi Airport was corporatized on 1 July 2009 to bring Changi to the next level and deliver an even better Changi Experience. (http://www.changiairport.com/our-business/about-changi-airport) Serving more than 90 international airlines flying to some 200 cities in 60 countries, Changi Airport handles about 5,000 arrivals and departures every week and over 37 million passengers a year. With over 40,000 square meters of commercial space, Changi Airport is also one of Singapores largest shopping locations. As the air traffic controller, Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) promotes a strong safety culture and embeds a robust safety framework, with a modern and progressive regulatory regime based on international best practices. Aircraft manufacturing and maintenance are the most important supporting industries for airlines industry. For Singapore airline industries, Boeing Company and Airbus is the main supplier for aircraft. Fortunately, Singapore also has its local brand. SIA Engineering Company is leading aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) company providing total maintenance solutions to an expanding client base of international airlines (http://www.siaec.com.sg/). Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry Local conditions affect firm strategy. For example, German companies tend to be hierarchical. Italian companies tend to be smaller and are run more like extended families. Such strategy and structure helps to determine in which types of industries a nations firms will excel. Singapore is a hierarchical paternalistic authoritarian illiberal state. Cause of Confucianism is strong; Singapore society is based on a hierarchical order of things. Rivalry in the Singapore airline industry is strong. Local rivalry forces firms to move beyond basic advantages that the home country may enjoy, such as low factor costs. The competitive landscape has several large companies, such as Singapore Airlines, alongside smaller competitors. Rivalry is increased by the presence of low-cost carriers in the market, as these companies can compete more intensely on price. Switching costs for buyers are low, which means that it is easy for them to change to a competitor. Cause of the globalization, there are many international competitors join in the Singapore market, such as China, Japan and India, etc. Chance The demand for air travel to the Asia Pacific is rising which is driven by increased economic activity in emerging Asian countries such as China and India. Traffic is projected to grow at 7% in China and India combined, above the world average of 5% in the fiscal year ended December 2007. Further, the share of Asia Pacific region in world passenger traffic is forecast to rise from 25% in 2003 to 31% in 2023. According to the update of the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the global tourism will rebound strongly in 2010. With the anticipated growth, business and consumer confidence has picked up. This growth in world tourism industry will enhance airline business. Singapore airlines industry can capitalize on this increase in world travel and tourism to enhance its business and generate additional revenues. Government Government is the important variable of affecting the competitiveness of the airline industry. In the past, the airline industry was at least partly government owned. The airline industry has been strongly controlled by agreements and policies. Airlines couldnt just fly to any destination or country without appropriate authorization. The deregulation of the Airline industry opens doors for more entrants to the market and increased competition. Singapore Airlines is still owned by the Singapore government and is still affected by such controls. Therefore, the government has great impact on the airline industry. In Singapore, the government is supporting the airline industry. The Singapore government has signed an agreement with the United States called Open Skies that gives both countries unrestricted flight access to each other countries. The open skies phenomenon is gathering momentum and more and more countries are signing up. Recently, the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CA AS) will be setting up an S$100-million Aviation Development Fund to further develop the local aviation industry. Conclusion Airline industry in Singapore has growing fast. Its due to have a good economic environment and stable politics. According to the analysis of Porters Diamond Model of Competitive Advantage, it obviously shows what competitive advantages of the Singapore airline industry have. Firstly, Singapore airline industries have the good human resources, finance support and other factor endowments. Secondly, the strong demand of market and the related and supporting industries. Additionally, the good opportunities and the government support. My recommendation for Singapore airline industry: Keep strong emphasis on the brand name and quality of service. Stay with the competitive advantage what the industries have, using the differentiation strategy. Maintain the innovation and complimentary products.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Our Town "Our Town", by Thornton Wilder, written in 1938, was first performed at the McCarter theatre, New Jersey, on the 22nd of January1938. It is an example of meta theatre, and chronicles the lives of ordinary, everyday people, during their ordinary, everyday lives. The story is based in GroverÃ¢â¬â¢s Corners, a small town in New Hampshire, set at the turn of the century. The play involves three main acts, each focussed upon a different aspect of life. Set in 1901, the first act simply discusses the passing of an uneventful day in the town. We are exposed to all the characters, particularly two teenage characters, Emily Webb, and George Gibbs. The second act focuses upon Ã¢â¬Ëlove and marriageÃ¢â¬â¢, and takes place in 1904, the day of Emily and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s wedding. We are exposed to all the tremulous events of marriage, yet the scene ends happily. The final act, set in 1913 involves the funeral of Emily Webb. After her death Emily chooses to return to her past, selecting her 12th birthday. Emily is soon returns to the cemetery, finding the whole experience saddening, as she realises the waste her life has been, taking everything for granted, not cherishing the smallest of treasures. Emily accepts death. Throughout this seemingly simple plot Wilder illustrates the relationship of the individual to the vastness of the universe, in fact, it is the simplicity of the plot that allows this topic to be addressed. I have been offered the position of a director of this play, and will further discuss my methods, adhering carefully to those suggested by Wilder. Thornton Wilder once referred to "Our Town" as "an effort to find the dignity in the trivial of our daily life, against those preposterous stretches which seem to rob it of any such dignity" This is an important aspect of the play, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Our whole idea of life is entertainment which is short, exciting, and requires no thinking. People prefer a roller coaster ride to smelling the roses. With the main theme of "Our Town" being focussing upon the small, everyday aspects of life, and celebrating them, it is difficult to guarantee the audience is not bored. I believe the key to ensuring the audience accepts, and comprehends the ideals of the play, by advertising the play as a mental workout. If the play is promoted as deep, touching upon our ... ...e extent of comprehension for the audience, but not to the extent of comparison. The audience must be able to relate to the emotions, not compare themselves with the actors feelings. The actor must show generic emotions, as their character "types" would do. This would allow the audience to see the universal person rather than a particular person in a particular town. The main characters must show their individual "types", making their stereotype obvious, enabling the audience to see the individual picture. The minor characters must play down their roles, to allow the audience to see the universal picture. by doing this they will help to covey the idea that in ordinary events, value can be found. Black shirts and pants would accent the simplicity of the set, and plot, once again allowing audiences to relate to the characters, and see the deeper meaning of the play. By conveying the themes and issues of "Our Town" in a method easily accessible to an audience through advertising, casting and acting, the concept of "Our Town" can be truly comprehended by an audience, in relation to my philosophies, and those of Thornton Wilder.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
After a stressful work or semester in school, people would feel pretty tired and want to do something to release the stress; everyone has in mind a place to escape to for relaxation. My place of relaxation is beach, especially the peaceful quiet morning beach. WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s the place for you then? It was early in the morning, when the sky was still dim, I was walking on the beach by myself with my scandals off, feeling the grainy sand that comforts my feet as I walked across the shore; as the tide hit on shore, the spray of water splashed on my skin, refreshing it was, I felt like as if I had drunk a glass of cold water on a hot summer day, and it drove the worm of sleepiness out of my mind. The salty air blowing on my face felt wet and cool as it passed by; taking a deep breath, it was the unique smell of sea coming with this blowingwing flow into my nose. How fresh and special the smell was, it left me with a deep memory. The beach was very quiet, there was no sound of men, but the seagulls peacefully chirp as they soar overhead, singing, and searching for food; the howling wind whistles through the beach like an arriving train; as the crash of the waves thunder through my ears, like a gigantic monster crying out, showing his strength to the world. As I looked back, the footprint I left showed my path; suddenly, a tide stroke on the shore, wrapping away the mark I had left, and then disappeared, left some stones it had brought with, as an evidence showing what it had done. Looking far, I saw nothing but the deep blue sea, it was as far as your eye can see, thus far and wide as if it was stretching out its arm, and wanted to hold sky into its bosoms. The sun was like a naughty child, little by little, rising up from the edge of sky and the deep sea, smiling, showing his face to the whole world. His light painted the sky with red, as if the sky was on fire. Frequently, there were people who jogging, biking, walking out dogs, passed by here, adding vitality to this place. This is the nature of morning beach; this is what is alluring me. Its quietness you canÃ¢â¬â¢t here in city, the site you canÃ¢â¬â¢t see in city. Here you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about anything, it wraps away all your stresses; it takes you into nature, as if you are a part of it. How beautiful the beach is! I felt like in dream, in paradise.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
I Want to Be Part of the Future I believe that education is the hope of the future, and as an educator I will be an important part of that future. Behind every president, doctor, lawyer, and parent there was a teacher. I believe that all children can learn and should be provided with the opportunity to do so. Education should be equal and without prejudice. Education should be provided to all children in accordance with their ability. Education should foster each childÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of community, success, and self-esteem. It should also promote pride in accomplishment. Education should reflect the needs of the child, the parents, and the community, with the emphasis on the child. It should provide the child with anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The more our students know and understand about each of these areas, the better able they will be to make valid decisions and judgments concerning their personal well-being and community and world prosperity. This is an example of Theodore BrameldÃ¢â¬â¢s philo sophy of education that is best known as the founder of Social Reconstructionism. Next, I believe in parts of the Essentialism philosophy. I believe that all students should be provided with the same opportunities in education, but modified to meet the individual needs of each student. I feel that as an educator, I need to encourage individuality and creativity in each student. I believe that each child is naturally curious and creative, and it is my job to nurture the creativity and direct the curiosity to enhance learning. I believe that each child has a certain capacity for learning, and it is my responsibility to recognize that capacity in each student and teach on a level to which each child is able to understand and grasp what is being taught. I believe that children learn at different speeds and in different ways, and it is my responsibility to consider these differences and provide each child with continuous and progressive emotional and mental growth. Last, I believe in the Progressivism philosophy. Our world is ever changing and as these changes occur, so should ourShow MoreRelatedEssay about Philosophy of Teaching Statement1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesteaching. The teachers that I have had in my school career have been no exception. In this way, each teacher has set an example for me, as a future teacher, to follow or not to follow as I see fit. With the examples from my teachers and in continuing my education, I am developing my own method of teaching. I plan to use a combination of teaching methods in my own classroom. My method will be an eclectic approach because I will be using components of more than one philosophy. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019
Social and Cultural Change Prompted by Technology Textile, steam, and metallurgy based innovations amounted to a legacy in Britain and a precedent for future industrial revolutions for other countries. As urbanization became a phenomenon in Britain, people migrated to the city centers in an effort to find employment and waged labor. New technological advancements, during BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Industrial Revolution, prompted change in society and culture. The increased demand for British goods resulted in merchants needed more cost-effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system. The separation of social classes and labor was one major effect of the inventions. Also, women and children were the new solution for long, hard hours and lower pay. Cultural changes were a direct result of this increase in technological developments, reshaping familial relations and daily life, while leaving an agriculturally based culture. 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The social, economic, and political issues and circumstances that took place many years ago are the foundation of who America is today. Most Americans do not realize how many people were affected by immigration, or understand the real struggles and sacrifices that the indigenous people and the colonists made for the freedoms we have today. During these historical events, many cultural, social, and economical events were impacted. Historical Contributions
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Discussion Board #3 - Using the Gender Identity Literary Theory. A White Heron. This short story portrays the resistance that feminist concepts give way to. Our story having the main character as a nine-year-old little girl who embarks on a journey that yearns for the young girl to come from a state of innocence to a state of knowledge about the world around her. She becomes illuminated in her environment once her grandmother has brought her to live in the rural countryside. Knowledge and nature seem to be key reoccurring elements, signifying some of the elements that the feminist analytical approach targets as a unique discourse of feminine characteristic. The author being female, it can be argued that an underlying attempt is submergedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To tie this together, with wealth and power, an insensitive male culture is able to exploit the harmony of the world he dominants, which is a significant point made in feminist movements. Sylvia and the young man take on an expedition into the woods to find the white heron. The young man hopes to se duce Sylvia to gain more knowledge of the prized white heron. When the seduction occurs, there are several poignant emotions that the author describes of the young girl, which directly leads the reader into the second perspective which is Ã¢â¬Å"her initiatory journey.Ã¢â¬ Young Sylvia is thrust into a yearning for womanhood, which is depicted in the story Ã¢â¬Å"the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, asleep in the child. This part is important because of its portrayal of a masculine device at using the innocence of a young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s heart to obtain his needs. The journey she must embark upon is more an upward that an outward one, a direction that emphasizes not only the limits of her environment but points to her affinity with the bird. We think of the journey to knowledge as more of a flight applying bird-like characteristics to Sylvia. Ã¢â¬Å"With her bare feet and fingers, that pinched and held like birdÃ¢â¬â¢s claws to the monstrous ladderÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Sylvia felt as if she could go flying away among the cloudsÃ¢â¬ ¦truly it was a vast and awesome world!Ã¢â¬ Sylvia has recognized her own independence. Ultimately the concluding choice that Sylvia makes coincides withShow MoreRelatedHistory of the Development of the Short Story.3660 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe Short Story. Basic Literary Elements of The Short Story. 1.1.History of The Development of The Short Story. 1.1.1.Early Forms.Origins. The short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, usually in narrative format. This format or medium tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the 20th and 21st century sense) and novels or books. Short story definitions based upon length differ somewhat even among professional writersRead MoreIroquois Confederacy9092 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesIROQUOIS CONFEDERACY by Loretta Hall OVERVIEW The Iroquois Confederacy, an association of six linguistically related tribes in the northeastern woodlands, was a sophisticated society of some 5,500 people when the first white explorers encountered it at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The 1990 Census counted 49,038 Iroquois living in the United States, making them the countrys eighth most populous Native American group. Although Iroquoian tribes own seven reservations in New York